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Extra resources for A Visual Method of Observing the Influence of Atmospheric Conditions on Radio Reception

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8 for high deuterium. 3, was reached in the recent work [186] based on the measurements of η10 in angular fluctuations of CMBR (see sec. 4). The latest data on light element abundances, as discussed above, seem to converge to low (or, better to say, to normal) deuterium abundance and to Nν = 3. Similar results were obtained earlier in ref. [187]. However one still has to be cautious in making conclusions about the accuracy of determination of Nν from BBN. This limit demands the simultaneous knowledge of 4 He and 2 H, which are necessary to fix two unknown parameters Ωb h2 and Nν .

Hence the ντ -mass cannot be noticeably different from the νµ -mass. Even if the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is 63 created by the oscillations between νµ and νs , the sterile state with the large mixing angle demanded by the anomaly, would bring sterile neutrinos into thermal equilibrium in the early universe (see sec. 12) and that would create serious problems for nucleosynthesis [189]. Still even the above is true, there are several physical effects, as we can see in this section and in sec.

Through interactions between neutrinos and electrons, this temperature difference leads to non-equilibrium distortions of the neutrino spectra. The temperature difference is essential in the interval 1 < x < 30. The second effect is the freezing of the neutrino interactions because the collision integrals drop as 1/x2 . At small x ≪ 1 collisions are fast but at x > 1 they are strongly suppressed. The third important phenomenon is the elastic νν-scattering which smooths down the non-equilibrium corrections to the neutrino spectrum.

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A Visual Method of Observing the Influence of Atmospheric Conditions on Radio Reception by Merritt E.

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