Environmental Engineering

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By Pira International Ltd

ISBN-10: 184735842X

ISBN-13: 9781847358424

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Cookers with a high temperature stage (120–150°C) and a lower temperature holding period (95°C) are used. The high temperatures reduce bacteria levels in the mash. 3 Saccharification: the mash from the cookers is cooled and the enzyme glucoamylase is 4 Fermentation: yeast is added to the mash to ferment the sugars to ethanol and added to convert starch molecules to fermentable sugars (dextrose). carbon dioxide. Using a continuous process, the fermenting mash flows through several fermenters until the mash is fully fermented and leaves the tank.

It has a highly potent and efficient cellulase enzyme system tailored to the specific pre-treated feedstock and has developed reactor systems that feature high productivity and high conversion of cellulose to glucose (accomplished through separate hydrolysis and fermentation using a multi-stage hydrolysis process). Advanced micro-organisms and fermentation systems are used that convert both C6 and C5 sugars into ethanol. The so-called beer produced by fermentation is then distilled using conventional technology to produce cellulose ethanol for fuel-grade applications.

Common chemical pre-treatment methods use dilute acid, alkaline, ammonia, organic solvent, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide or other chemicals. The most important methods are the use of acid and alkali. Acid catalysed hydrolysis uses dilute sulphuric, hydrochloric Page 31 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Bioethanol Production of bioethanol or nitric acids. 5%, temperature above 160°C) has been most favoured for industrial application because it achieves reasonably high sugar yields from hemicellulose: xylose yields of at least 75–90% (Sun and Cheng, 2002).

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Advances in Bioethanol by Pira International Ltd


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