By Kim Fortun
Publish yr note: First released July twenty fourth 2001 by means of college Of Chicago Press
The 1984 explosion of the Union Carbide chemical plant in Bhopal, India was once undisputedly one of many world's worst commercial failures. a few have argued that the ensuing litigation supplied an "innovative model" for facing the worldwide distribution of technological hazard; others examine the catastrophe a turning aspect in environmental laws; nonetheless others argue that Bhopal is what globalization appears like at the ground.Kim Fortun explores those claims by way of concentrating on the dynamics and paradoxes of advocacy in competing energy domain names. She strikes from hospitals in India to conferences with legal professionals, company executives, and environmental justice activists within the usa to teach how the catastrophe and its results stay with us. Spiraling outward from the victims' tales, the cutting edge narrative sheds gentle at the method advocacy works inside a posh worldwide procedure, calling into query traditional notions of accountability and moral behavior. Revealing the hopes and frustrations of advocacy, this relocating paintings additionally counters the tendency to consider Bhopal as an remoted incident that "can't ensue here."
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Additional resources for Advocacy after Bhopal: Environmentalism, Disaster, New Global Orders
Corporations are expected to think objectively, technically, financially, and legally. Rationality is demonstrated by both. Citizens are not expected to be rational. Their "frame of reference" is subjective, intuitive, and experiential (Shrivastava 1987, 90). Like most pluralist models, the stakeholder model can't seem to tolerate much complexity-or much dissent. I needed a different model. Yet I also needed to better understand how a stakeholder model could work. I needed to tum the stakeholder model into a resource, rather than insisting only on its insufficiencies.
But the seeming emphasis on "in their own words" is skewed. Most of the excerpts-and those with gas victims, in particular-were collected for various purposes and publications directly related to the adjudication of the Bhopal case. They are mediated by the demands of advocacy. So I do not include them to move closer to the final truth of Bhopal. Instead, I include them because they harbor potential for ever further elaboration. Sometimes these excerpts substantiate the interpretation I offer. Other times they challenge it.
Courts that the judgment had been obtained through due process-thus leaving collection dependent on judicial interpretation by the same court that had denied jurisdiction of the case. Another argument for pursing the litigation in the United States regarded the potential amount of damages. Compensatory damages in the United States were, of course, routinely higher than in India. S. court, while punitive damages were not an option in India. Suing for punitive damages was attractive to many of the activists I worked with because of the promise of proving liability, rather than merely collecting an award based on a no-fault decision.
Advocacy after Bhopal: Environmentalism, Disaster, New Global Orders by Kim Fortun