By Shirley D. Sullivan
Sullivan specializes in 8 key mental phrases - phr n, thumos, kardia, kear, tor, nous, prapides, and psych - that seem often in historic Greek texts yet that have quite a lot of attainable meanings. accumulating circumstances from The Persians, Seven opposed to Thebes, Suppliants, Agamemnon, Choephoroi, and Eumenides (instances from Prometheus sure, whose authorship is in query, are handled in notes and an appendix), Sullivan first examines each one psychic time period individually. She then discusses circumstances of the phrases in every one play, analyzing the which means of the psychic time period within the context of the play within which it seems that and delivering information on Aeschylus' utilization. This publication sheds mild at the wealthy and occasionally problematic approach within which Aeschylus makes use of mental terminology and is a superb reference for classicists, psychologists, philosophers, and students of comparative literature.
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Additional info for Aeschylus' Use of Psychological Terminology: Traditional and New
122 Ag. 103, 546, 895. In the first passage the Chorus tell Clytemnestra of their current state of mind. They have, at some times, "care" ( ), which is "thinking sad thoughts" ( ). " With three words having the same root, -phr-, we see the activity of phren here being very prominent. 123 At Ag. " We heard above, at Per. "124 At Ag. 895 we find a different reference to phren. Clytemnestra declares that, after much grief in the past (887-94), her phren now has become "griefless" ( ) with Agamemnon's return (895-6) :125 In these lines Aeschylus subtly suggests a profound contrast with the Chorus by the word order he uses.
In the discussion of Aeschylus I use the categories of Holiness, Justice, Pride, and Prosperity. I also consider that the "moral" references Pindar and Bacchylides make to phrenes fall likewise into these categories. In earlier poets we find more general associations of phrenes with moral behaviour. People know, for example, "fitting ( things" in phrenes (Od. r Someone can know "suitable ( ) things" in phrenes or speak them with phrenes (II. 92; Od. 240). Theognis refers to "perceiving noble sentiments" ( ) with phrenes (1008).
The Chorus believe that Clytemnestra's phrenes have been thus deceived (Ag. 8° This light could be "like dreams" ( ), which here seem able to deceive phrenes. We heard above, in contrast, in the Third Stasimon, that phrenes on occasion can have "confident courage" to dispel dreams (Ag. 981-3). Choe. 854. *2 Aeschylus' use of the verb with phren is new, although we find reference to noos being "deceived" ( ) at //. , Theog. 613; and Sem. 42 W. "83 Per. 472. In the passages mentioned above illustrating traditional references to phren being deceived, the agents were often the gods.
Aeschylus' Use of Psychological Terminology: Traditional and New by Shirley D. Sullivan