By John N. Coupland (auth.)
Familiar mixtures of components and processing make the buildings that provide meals its homes. for instance in ice cream, the emulsifiers and proteins stabilize in part crystalline milk fats as an emulsion, freezing (crystallization) of a few of the water supplies the product its hardness and polysaccharide stabilizers preserve it delicate. Why diversified recipes paintings as they do is essentially ruled via the principles of actual chemistry.
This textbook introduces the actual chemistry necessary to realizing the habit of meals. beginning with the best version of molecules attracting and repelling each other whereas being moved through the randomizing impression of warmth, the legislation of thermodynamics are used to derive very important houses of meals equivalent to taste binding and water task. such a lot meals comprise a number of stages and a similar molecular version is used to appreciate section diagrams, part separation and the houses of surfaces. the remainder chapters specialize in the formation and homes of particular buildings in meals – crystals, polymers, dispersions and gels.
Only a simple realizing of nutrients technology is required, and no arithmetic or chemistry past the introductory collage classes is needed. in any respect phases, examples from the first literature are used to demonstrate the textual content and to focus on the sensible purposes of actual chemistry in foodstuff science.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Food
The magnitude of the force is less than the corresponding ion–dipole interaction because while one end of the dipole feels a net attraction, the other feels a net repulsion. However, in the liquid state molecules are free to move so their orientations are not fixed. If the molecules were completely free to rotate, the attractive and repulsive orientations would cancel one another out and the net dipole–dipole interaction would be zero. However, the attractive orientations are preferred to the repulsive ones and polar molecules in solution will tend to line up next to one another and provide a weak attractive force, the Keesom force.
6e represents a bonding potential. At long separations, there are no interactions between the molecules and they are free to move uninfluenced by one another. However, as they approach one another, the potential starts to curve downwards toward an energy minimum that tends to trap the molecules at a fixed separation from one another. 6e). 6e) is the energy needed to pull the molecule out from the energy minimum and drag it to a range at which it no longer interacts with the fixed molecule. 6e. To understand the interactions between molecules we must calculate the shape of the electromagnetic potential.
9) Udd (s) = 4πε0 εr s 3 Note the range of the interaction is shorter (~ s−3) than either the ion–ion or ion–dipole interactions because at long range the positive and negative parts of both dipoles tend to cancel one another out. The magnitude of the force is less than the corresponding ion–dipole interaction because while one end of the dipole feels a net attraction, the other feels a net repulsion. However, in the liquid state molecules are free to move so their orientations are not fixed. If the molecules were completely free to rotate, the attractive and repulsive orientations would cancel one another out and the net dipole–dipole interaction would be zero.
An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Food by John N. Coupland (auth.)